عربي
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Geography
Libya extends over 1,775,500 square kilometers. It lies at the northern region of the African continent, making it the 4th largest nation in the African Continent by size. It is bound to the north by the Mediterranean Sea, the west by Tunisia and Algeria, the southwest by Niger, the south by Chad and Sudan and to the east by Egypt. At 1,770 kilometers, Libya’s coastline is the longest of any African country bordering the Mediterranean

Topographies
The Mediterranean coast and the Sahara Desert are the country’s most prominent natural features. There are several highlands but no true mountain ranges except in the largely empty southern desert near the Chadian border, where the Tibesti Massif lies. The Libyan territories include various units of distinguished and different topographies that could fall into three major regions

Coastal Plains Region: Jifarah, Khams, Mustara, Benghazi, Sirte and Eastern Plains
Northern highlands region: al-Gharbi and Al-Akhdhar Mountains, Batnan and Dafna Hills
Dessert region
Hills: Red Hamada Hills
Northern lowlands: Jaghboub, Aujela, Jalow, Ajkhara and Murada lowlands
Basins: Obari, Marzaq and Kafra Basins
Valleys: Shati’i and Hayat Valleys

Population: 6,422,772 by 2011 census

Capital: Tripoli

Other cities
Benghazi
Sabha
Zawiya
Baydha
Misrata
Derna
Gharyan
Tubruq
Al Khams
Gadamus
Sirt
Ziwara
Merj
Ajdabiya

Main sea ports
Port of Tripoli
Port of Benghazi
Port of Misrata
Port of Ziwara
Port of Derna
Port of Tubruq
Port of Burequa
Port of Khams

Economy
In 2012, the Libyan economy experienced an impressive economic recovery and is expected to continue recovering in 2013, with the rapid recovery of oil production and exports, after the war of liberation. The size of the Libyan economy is estimates of $ 80 billion in 2010 and is based on the oil sector and run nationally. The Libyan government has taken several measures to strengthen the role of the private sector, it decreased the interest rates to encourage the demand for loans by the private sector, and encouraged private investment both domestic and foreign, and put a new tax law into force, and canceled tariff concessions for public institutions, and cut taxes on imports

Main industrial products
Iron and steel, cement and building materials, caustic soda, urea fertilizers and other petrochemical industries

Main agricultural crops
Barley, wheat, tomato, potato, Olives, Dates, vegetables and fruits in addition to livestock for the production of meat

Banks
Libya issued a special law that allows the opening of branches and offices of foreign banks with a minimum capital requisite of $50 million. The new law aims to at activate the openness of the Libyan economy and encourages foreign investment. This law also allows Libyans to establish financial companies with a minimum capital of $10 million

Central Bank of Libya
Gumhouria Bank
Wahda Bank
Sahara Bank
National Commercial Bank
Libyan Foreign Bank
Private Bank Institution: a shareholding corporation shared by all private commercial banks, followed by a number of banks in many Libyan cities
Agricultural Bank
Saving and Real-Estate Investment Bank
Development Bank

Currency
The dinar is the currency of Libya. The dinar is subdivided into 1000 dirham, coated with gold and exchangeable to other foreign currency. No restrictions are set against cash transfer transactions from and to Libya. One US Dollar equals 1.26+ – Dinars

Tourism
Tripoli is the de facto capital of Libya and was once known as the “White Bride of the Mediterranean”. Throughout history, the city exchanged hands many times, and several historic mosques and other sites in the medina attest to this. Its connection with neighboring countries with a network of paved roads makes access easy either by sea or by land or air

Climate
Both the Mediterranean Sea and the desert affect Libya’s climate. In the winter, the weather is cool with some rain on the coast and in the drier the desert temperature can drop to sub-freezing at night.
The Sahara is basically very dry and hot in the summer and cool and dry in the winter. Temperatures in the summer can reach 50°C during the day but more commonly are around 40°C. Night temperatures can vary from 30 to 40°C. The best time for visiting the Sahara is probably from October to April, at this time temperatures range from 15 to 30°C during the day and from 5 to 20°C at night
Rainfall is scanty, and the dry climate results in a year-round 98-percent visibility. The weather is cooler in the highlands, and frosts occur at maximum elevations. In the desert interior the climate has very hot summers and extreme diurnal temperature ranges. Less than 2 percent of the national territory receives enough rainfall for settled agriculture, the heaviest precipitation occurring in the Jabal al Akhdar zone. All other areas of the country receive less than 400 millimeters, and in the Sahara 50 millimeters or less occurs. Rainfall is often erratic, and a pronounced drought may extend over two seasons